Throughout Section IV, Research and Sponsored Projects, Chapter 6, Research Misconduct Policy, of this Handbook, unless the context requires a different meaning:
"Allegation": Any written or oral statement or other indication of possible research misconduct made to a University official.
- "Complainant": A person who makes an allegation of research misconduct.
- "Conflict of Interest": The real or apparent interference of one person's interests with the interests of another person, where potential bias may occur due to prior or existing personal or professional relationships.
- "Deciding Official": The Vice President for Research is the deciding official who makes final determinations on allegations of research misconduct and any responsive University actions.
- "Employee": Any person paid by, under the control of, or affiliated with the University, including but not limited to faculty, trainees, students, fellows, technicians, nurses, support staff, and guest researchers.
- "Evidence": Any document, tangible item, or testimony offered or obtained during a research misconduct proceeding that tends to prove or disprove the existence of an alleged fact.
- "Fabrication": Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
- "Falsification": Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
- "Good Faith Allegation": An allegation made with the honest belief that research misconduct may have occurred. An allegation is not in good faith if it is made with reckless disregard for or willful ignorance of facts that would disprove the allegation.
- "Inquiry": Preliminary information-gathering and fact-finding to determine whether an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct warrants an investigation.
- "Investigation": The formal development of a factual record and examination and evaluation of all relevant facts to determine if research misconduct has occurred and, if so, to determine the responsible person and the seriousness of the misconduct.
- "ORI": The Office of Research Integrity, the office within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that is responsible for the research misconduct and research integrity activities of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS).
- "PHS Regulation": The Public Health Service (PHS) regulation establishing standards for institutional inquiries and investigations into allegations of research misconduct, which is set forth at 42 CFR Part 93, entitled "Public Health Service Policies on Research Misconduct".
- "Plagiarism": The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
- "Preponderance of the evidence": proof by information that compared with that opposing it, leads to the conclusion that the fact issue is more probably true than not.
- "Relevant Governmental Agencies": Federal and/or state agencies providing financial support for the University research activities which are governed by research misconduct regulations (e.g. NSF, NIH, etc).
- "Research Integrity Officer (RIO)": The University official designated by the Vice President for Research with responsibilities related to administrative handling of allegations of research misconduct.
- "Research Misconduct": Fabrication, falsification, plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting results. Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion. To constitute research misconduct, the behavior must (1) represent a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (2) be committed intentionally, knowingly, or with reckless disregard for the integrity of the research; and, (3) the allegation is proven by the preponderance of evidence. [Federal Register: September 1, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 169)].
- "Research Record": Any data, document, computer file, computer diskette, electronic information storage device, or any other written or non-written account or object that reasonably may be expected to provide evidence or information regarding the proposed, conducted, or reported research that constitutes the subject of an allegation of research misconduct. A research record includes, but is not limited to, grant or contract applications, whether funded or unfunded; grant or contract progress and other reports; laboratory notebooks; notes; correspondence; videos; photographs; X-ray film; slides; biological materials; computer files and printouts; manuscripts and publications; equipment use logs; laboratory procurement records; animal facility records; human and animal subject protocols; consent forms; medical charts; and, subject research files.
- "Respondent": The person against whom an allegation of research misconduct is directed or the person who is the subject of the inquiry or investigation. There can be more than one respondent in any inquiry or investigation.
- "Retaliation": Any action that adversely affects the employment or other status of an individual that is taken by the University, an institution or an employee because the individual has, in good faith, made an allegation of research misconduct or of inadequate University response thereto, or has cooperated in good faith with an investigation of such allegation.